Service, Education, Latitude, and Flexibility – The Four Pillars of Modern Security

As the chair of the school of Criminal Justice, each new class presents some unique issues to be addressed. Yet, there are always common questions which recur for each class. One of these always concerns what the modern security professional needs to be aware of in this changing technological era. With each incoming class, and with each graduating class, I have always stressed four key principles that they must beware of if they are to be successful in their new profession. In this article we will take a look at those four parameters and how they impact not only individuals, but the system of security throughout this country as a whole. The need to provide service, to continue education, to remember the need for latitude, and to understand the growing flexibility of the new technological age are the four pillars that will make a successful professional, and a successful system for security.

Service:

In the instruction of college students, we sometimes take for granted that their understanding of the world at large is the same as the professors that provide the instruction. This is seldom the case. In Criminal Justice programs for almost a decade we saw increasing numbers of young high school graduates come into programs with the intent of becoming police officers, or what we have grown to identify as public security officials. Over the last two years this process has change radically. With the economic pressure on states, counties, and cities, we have seen a reduction in number of public security personnel in the face of rising cost. The cost of training and maintaining the average police officer has increased over 415% since the 1980s as indicated in the department of justice and labor statistics. It is this extreme escalation in cost that has forced society away from public security and toward private security professionals for economic reasons. Yet service, a key factor that any security professional or organization must provide, has very different meanings for each of these groups. Police departments are and were created to provide protection to the population at large. This is often a very different type of service, and will continue to be a very different type of service than that provided by the private security professional whose creation and existence is often driven by contract to protect private property. Private security does not have the same posture toward people.

The nature of service is changing dramatically as we make the transition from large public forces, to smaller contract driven private forces in our society. Helping students to understand this distinction can often be traumatic for those that come to the educational institution with only the concept of public service as their vision. The study of contract law and the intricacies involved focuses the student on these differences. The distinction between the two natures of service becomes clear, if not readily accepted. An example occurred recently in Seattle that made national headlines. The City of Seattle operates a public bus system in the city. At one facility where buses would engage in turnarounds, security was not provided by police, but by a private security company. One particular evening, a young lady found herself under attack by a group of young men in this facility. The private security officers responsible for this facility could be seen on camera not responding to the individual who was in distress. A Public outcry resulted from this lack of response and service. Once the investigation was undertaken it became apparent that the contract which allowed these private security forces into this facility restricted their ability to respond to individual attacks. Their responsibility was the protection of property, i.e. the buses, the property of that company to which they contracted. They were providing service in according with the terms of their contract, but not in terms of the social contract that society often expects from public security entities. It is this new change in understanding that the public must grow to understand as we make a shift from public security to private security in many of these areas. In time, we will balance these issues of service but at present it is an area that the security professional must be aware of and understand more fully.

Education:

Twenty years ago the average police officer needed little more than a high school education, and some well cultivated connections on a local police force before being accepted for training in a state sponsored academy. Likewise, a private security officer needed the same educational background to be accepted into a program that provided minimal training before being allowed to carry a firearm and to use lethal force. Those days are long gone. Today the modern security professional, weather in the public sector are the private sector, faces a growing pressure for increased levels of education. At the institution where I teach, we hire a number of adjuncts to teach classes each year. Many of these people come from police departments, and others from private security companies and the court systems in terms of prosecutors both Federal and state. The minimum requirement to teach a course at our institution, and many other institutions is a master’s degree as a minimum. We see the same trend in companies looking to hire new graduates.

In many segments of the security industry, especially those dealing with information systems, the Bachelor’s Degree is the minimum requirement to get in the door of the company. The American Society of Industrial Security, the largest organization in the country for security professionals, has been one of the leaders in establishing higher educational requirement for all private companies across the nation. Likewise, public security agencies such as sheriff’s departments and police departments who for years have used the associates degree as the minimum requirement for entry level positions, have slowly begun to back away from that position. An associate degree may get you an entry level job with a police department or a sheriff’s department, but you will not be promotable. Over the last decade, as evidenced by U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, which keeps educational statistics for all colleges across the country, Criminal Justice programs had moved significantly away from certificates programs and associate degrees toward full bachelor’s degree programs for their students. This is driven in part by the complexity of technology graduates must face. This will not change in the foreseeable future.

Latitude:

Latitude as a concept is very difficult to explain to students, and often just as difficult for professionals in the field to grasp. Latitude deals with political astuteness, and the ability to have room to maneuver in current societal situations. The security professional whether in the public sector or the private sector must deal with individuals that represent different strata’s of society. They may be discussing issues with the CEO of a large multinational conglomerate, a politician, or dealing with a highly sensitive issue for a single family. Each of these requires a certain degree of latitude, or political astuteness. The professional must be aware of the political realities of changing situations. They must be comfortable in a wide range of political situations and understand what room for maneuvering is available to them in order to address the problems they may face.

Flexibility:

In the world of today, and tomorrow, the security professional must be the ultimate utility person. They must be comfortable with a range of technological systems, and be comfortable with these systems. Whether they are dealing with psychological profiles to help them understand their community, or the personal data they will safeguard for that community, they must be capable of dealing with a bewildering array of technology. The security professional of today must have unparalleled flexibility to move seamlessly, and flawlessly between a large number of systems and to be proficient in their use.

Conclusion:

In understanding what will be required in the changing economic, political, social, and technological environment of the future, security professionals must understand and add here to these four fundamental pillars of success. To succeed, the successful security professional, irrespective of whether in the public or private sector must understand the important and changing nature of service in the future. They will likewise be aware of increasing educational goals with in their areas and adjust their educational goals according. Finally they must obtain a firm grasp of the need for latitude, and its political subtleties as well as flexibility which is being driven by technological need in a changing world. If they adhere to these four pillars, that will be successful and society will be the better for it.

Knowledge – Knowledge Management and Educational Entrepreneurship

Introduction

Curiosity is basic human instinct. It is natural gift for every human being. On account of curiosity, people want to know ins and outs of everything. Acquisition of knowledge is thus basic demand of human nature. Knowledge is acquired through education, observation, and experience; however it is preserved, improved, and transferred through reflection, application, and teaching. A person cannot work or grow without knowledge. Knowledge is utilized at all levels of life, both individual as well as collective, invoked on all occasions of life, both simple as well as complex, used on all spatial settings of life, both natural as well as artificial, and applied on all temporal moments of life, both temporary as well as permanent. It plays vital role in survival, growth and development of a person or a nation. It gives productivity to individuals, quality to institutions, and majesty to nations. Knowledge is unavoidable for workers / professionals and inevitable for leaders / entrepreneurs. It gives efficiency to followers, effectiveness to managers, and greatness to leaders.

Knowledge is the understanding of factual, procedural and conceptual aspects of information that a person acquires through education, observation and experience. It enhances the understanding level of mankind. It unearths the realties of time-space phenomena and gives definite clues to life and lifeless objects of cosmic economy. For example, Divine System of Growth, Body-Mind Duality, Mind-Soul Phenomena, Natural Forces, Social Linkages, Economic Links, Political Relations, and History Forces are outcome of learning efforts. In short, knowledge gives vivid picture of cosmic realties, both tangible as well as intangible.

Knowledge is formal as well as informal. The Informal knowledge is subjective and non-coordinated. It can be learned or taught by anyone. On the other hand, the formal knowledge is objective and coordinated. Formal knowledge is learned or taught through educational institutions, so that these institutions are vital for society and individuals. They create knowledge, give new dimensions to exiting knowledge, improve knowledge profile of an individual, enhance knowledge repertoire of society, transfer knowledge among students, and organize knowledge-seekers / knowledge-givers. The productivity and quality of educational institutions is vital for superior individuals and elegant society. The quality and productivity of educational institutions depends on efficient-effective approach towards knowledge management. Knowledge Management means to unearth, create, acquire, transfer, and utilize the knowledge in order to produce superior individuals / quality institutions / majestic nations.

Bases of Human Knowledge

The very bases of human knowledge are human senses, instinctual thrust towards new information or curiosity, and reflective ability of human mind. The prominent senses are sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. The related sense organs are eye, ear, nose, tongue, and the whole skin. A person gets information through sense organs, reflects on it, and finally shapes some propositions on acquired information. A set of propositions is called knowledge. Knowledge is thus shaped through experience and reflection. Intellect is used to interpret sense experiences. Intellect is naturally bestowed mind power to analyze or synthesize information. Reflection is an activity of intellect. In addition, necessities of life provide bases to knowledge driven activities.

Types of Knowledge

Knowledge is defined as the information, understanding, and skills that one gets through education, observation, and experience. Knowledge can be classified into following groups:

  • Natural Sciences: – Natural sciences deals with inanimate objects of universe. The major branches are physics, chemistry, and astronomy.
  • Biological Sciences: – Biological Sciences deals with animate objects of universe. The major branches are zoology, botany, and psychology.
  • Social Sciences: – Social Sciences deals with collective life and relationships between individual and society. They reveal, too, temporal perspective of interactive linkages. The major branches are sociology, political science, economics, and history.
  • Professional Sciences: – Professional Sciences deals with professions of individuals necessary for human survival. Professions improve quality of life of people. The major branches are medicine, engineering, and commerce.

Aspects of Knowledge

A peace of knowledge can be broken into three categories or has three aspects – Declarative, Procedural & Conceptual.

  1. Declarative Knowledge: – It is knowledge about something, e.g., structure of body, structure of computer, format of earth, and parts of speech. It deals with WHAT type of questions.
  2. Procedural Knowledge: – It is knowledge about the procedures and sequences. It narrates and explains procedures & sequences of any compiled information or data, that is, it deals with HOW & WHEN type of questions. For example, HOW computer is manufactured or used, WHEN computer is ready to use or sale.
  3. Conceptual Knowledge: – It is knowledge of concepts working behind the declarative and procedural knowledge. It is abstract aspect of knowledge. In conceptual knowledge, the relationship among concepts is also discussed. It deals with WHY type of questions. For example, the mathematical concepts and their relationship with each other that provide basis to the working of computer hardware or software.

Learning – Language Duality

Language is inevitably linked with learning phenomena, existence of one leads creation of other. A person must give some name and meaning to a piece of information or some event. During pre-linguistic era, symbols were used to understand/explain and to learn/teach something. Learning-Language duality, thus, is inherent ability and attribute of human mind. Human thought process adopts generally mother tongue to conceptualize things. It is noteworthy that a person can adopt multiple languages for thought process. The multi-lingual ability of thinking is developed overtime. Initially, mother tongue is soft option for knowledge development. At higher level, an objective or balanced approach can be applied for other languages. A lop-sided or subjective approach towards learning-language duality is harmful for individuals and nations.

Knowledge Development & Knowledge Experience

Knowledge is continuously evolving asset of mankind, its growth and development is materialized in leaps and bounds. Countless individuals are busy in its continual progress. Knowledge development is comprehensive process; it deals with subjective as well as objective sources of data / information. Our inner and outer senses are constantly receiving data from inner, outer, and divine sources. The inner source of knowledge is pre-conscious, the outer sources of knowledge are animate & inanimate objects of universe, and the divine source of knowledge is Divine Conscious. The inner source of knowledge is subjective as well as objective, the outer source of knowledge is purely objective, and the divine source of knowledge is subjective. Man gives a name/meaning to these data and it becomes information. A piece of information is converted into some coherent schemata; coherent schemata give shape to knowledge. A systematic knowledge adopts a practical shape during interactive life, consequently, the pearls of wisdom are created or materialized, ready to use. A knowledge traveler starts from identification of something new or novel, interpretation is secondary during knowledge journey, classification is third phase on learning curvature, and finally execution/application is made to internalize/marginalize the new findings with previous findings. During internalization a piece of information becomes part of knowledge, while during marginalization a false finding is discarded. The knowledge experience, thus, has five phases – Identification, Interpretation, Classification, Execution/Application, and Internalization / Marginalization.

Knowledge Management

The effective utilization of knowledge or knowledge management is solution to many problems of present day life, both simple as well as complex. The real understanding of bases, types, and aspects of knowledge enables us to manage knowledge for the betterment of humanity. It is fruitful for all kinds of individuals working in various types of institutions. It is supportive for better and meaningful social relations, helpful for optimal and sustainable resource usage, inevitable for good governance, vital for psycho-spiritual satisfaction, and essential for physical health.

Knowledge management is dominantly activity of institutions. Institutions are outcome of an idea. The very bases of idea are necessity of people and curiosity of intellectuals. An innovative leader grasps the situation and shapes institution. So that institutional development and knowledge management are dynamically linked with each other. A better approach towards knowledge management enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations, while an improved/innovative organizational practice develops/constructs knowledge assets. An innovatively evolved knowledge is, thus, essential asset of institutional world. Overtime, knowledge management for better organizational behavior has attained a scientific and systematic shape. Management is the ability to create, organize and utilize resources in an optimal manner, i.e., with efficiency – doing things right & effectiveness – doing the right things. Whereas, the knowledge management is to reveal, create, acquire, transfer, and utilize the knowledge for excellent outcome. Informational efficiency is essential cornerstone of knowledge management. An arrangement of data into a meaningful shape is called information. An efficient acquisition and effective distribution of information give comparative-competitive advantage to institutions. Moreover, it is supportive to innovations and makes an institution precisely responsive towards changes. During crises it provides better clues for re-organization or re-engineering.

At institutional level, innovational outcome is the most evolved stage of knowledge management. The first stage is collection of accurate data, the second is collection of meaningful information based on data, the third is imparting right information to the right people at the right time, the fourth is to take right decisions on available information, and finally to take right actions in order to shape innovations/innovative activities.

Knowledge Management & Educational Entrepreneurship

Life has two levels, individual as well as collective. The collective level is manifested through multiple ways such as tribes & clans, institutions & organizations, and state & intrastate blocks. Organizational level of life is complex phenomena of modern society. Organizations are multiple in numbers, multilayered in structure, and multidimensional in operations. We may classify the existing institutional phenomena into two broad categories – profit oriented institutions and welfare oriented institutions. The profit oriented institutions provide, primarily, sustenance and leads, lastly, towards better quality of life with more financial resources to their workers / initiators / stakeholders. The welfare based institutions provide some utility to individuals or community at large. Institutions, either profit oriented or welfare oriented, need multiple resources for initiation or operation such as natural resources, financial resources and human resources. The optimal usage of resources is based, significantly, on effective utilization of knowledge or knowledge management, without proper knowledge management these institutions cannot be run efficiently, effectively, and indefinitely.

Institutions and entrepreneur are dynamically linked with each other, so that, an entrepreneurial effort, too, has two aspects – economic and social. A profit oriented institution is initiated / operated by economic entrepreneur and welfare oriented institution is initiated / operated by social entrepreneur. Profit is outcome of multiple performance indicators and success factors. A scientific knowledge about the linkages among multiple factors leads towards better managerial practices. A wise utilization of already accumulated information brings normal profit, while a wise utilization of some innovative piece of information brings windfall profit. At welfare level, a social work is actualized by means of social linkages; a proper understanding and usage of social linkages enhance the social effectiveness of institutions. Effective usage of Knowledge is, thus, valuable for both, economic entrepreneur and social entrepreneur.

Educational institutions are dominantly welfare driven and partially profit driven. A unique approach towards knowledge management is required in order to attain maximum benefits from learning activity. Interestingly, the whole activity of educational institution revolves around knowledge. There is a group of knowledge-seekers or students, knowledge-givers or teachers, and knowledge-workers or managers. Knowledge management is inevitable for all groups. Learning strategies are required by students to absorb knowledge, teaching methods are used by teaching faculty to transfer knowledge, and managerial practices are applied by non-teaching faculty to disseminate knowledge, efficiently and effectively. In addition, the entrepreneurial activity of educational institutions is dominantly wisdom driven effort. Educational Entrepreneur differentiates and realizes economic as well as social goals on account of wisdom. Wisdom is based on knowledge, thus, knowledge is indispensable for educational entrepreneur.

Concluding Remarks – Current Scenario with Possible Caveats

Human Civilization has absorbed the ins and outs of information era. People now have immense information on every thing. We are now inhabitant of knowledge world. Societies/nations are recognized by their knowledge assets / knowledge workers. Flow of information or knowledge is swift, easy, and economical. Internet has become essential aspect of present day life. A person can acquire knowledge through clicking keyboard or dragging mouse. A great body of information is available with negligible cost. Virtual institutions are working on dissemination of knowledge. People share or publish knowledge with no cost through social media of internet. Virtual world has established varied platforms for knowledge development. The developmental journey based on information and knowledge will continue forever. People and societies will choose pearls of wisdom from Knowledge Ocean in order to realize prosperous and magnificent life.

Existing Scenario of modern civilization is promising however permanent care would be required to avoid vicious circle based on possible illusion of perfect knowledge. The situation may lead to knowledge traveler towards micro truths from knowledge development activities consequently a person may loose wider / hidden understanding of knowledge ocean. It has happened in 19th century. Scientists have become perfectionist towards their findings. They were painting only statistical picture of everything. In early decades of 20th century, Einstein, Jung, Gestalts, Keynes, Iqbal, Bergson, and Bertrand Russell broke the myth of perfectionism or micro truths. An exactly opposite situation may arise due to bulk of information. The information is mind boggling; a person may loose concentration consequently one can oversight potential / hidden realities of knowledge tree. The ultimate outcome of mental divergence is information without knowledge or knowledge without wisdom or wisdom without ultimate truth. Moreover, the easy acquisition/publication can make someone forgetful from deep insight of knowledge; consequently, the society would have information or knowledge without wisdom. The real assets of a society are wise people, enlightened with ultimate truths, rather than informative people, ignorant towards ultimate truths.

Careers With An Education Degree

At the current education industry, what we can observe is that things have come to change drastically. Today, education degrees jobs are not merely teachers as the opportunities have bloomed to include many other prestigious positions in any educational organizations. With an education degree, you are welcome to ample of vacant positions as well as potential careers not just dealing with simple teaching but encompassing some administration work as well. If you have the persona of an educator as well as willing to be part of the education industry, you should be giving some serious contemplation of attempting the educational career.

One of the best careers is the early childhood education teacher. This is especially interesting for those having strong affinity for kids. Such an education teacher career will not only deliver you life excitement, dealing with kids give you a stress-free and enjoyable job. There is plethora of opportunities in many different children schools. Besides, majority of children educators have come to find themselves enjoying their job to the extent of making the work setting their second lovely home. Nowadays, not only children schools are in need of childhood teachers, you can try out working in day care centers or child-oriented programs as well.

Something above the childhood level is the elementary school education teacher. Among all the education degrees jobs, the elementary school teacher is one of the promising careers in the academic field. This is ideal for teachers who love dealing with growing kids from the kindergarten stage to the age of 12. Probably the largest reward a teacher can obtain through the teaching experience is having the opportunity to mold, develop and influence the minds of young children who could possibly turn out to be the world’s future leaders. Genuine dedication and a sincere heart are important aspects an elementary teacher should possess.

The secondary level of education teacher career is also one renowned option among the educators. At this stage, your job ranges from the basic teaching of one or more subjects to adolescents and dealing with the transitional period of young adults. Students at secondary school level are often rebellious and bewildering so often teachers will have to act as counselors to interact with students and solve their youth problems.