Chinese Education: Students, Teachers, and Methodology

With my interest and background in education, my teaching in China placed me in a unique position to do firsthand observation of Chinese education at all levels, which was one of the primary purposes of my original sabbatical request and my subsequent trips there. My wife and I visited a number of elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as several community colleges; in addition, I had the opportunity of teaching at all university grade levels. I came to find out that education has very different, much more deterministic consequences for Chinese students than it does for American students.

Look at it this way. With a population of over 1.3 billion people, China has one-fifth of the world’s population: one in every five people on Earth is Chinese. Further complicating the problems of that massive populace is the distribution of the people. China has roughly the same land mass as the United States. However, a good portion of that area is uninhabitable or sparsely populated: the Gobi Desert is non-arable and the Himalayas and the Himalayan plateau regions have proven to be largely useless; the eastern half of the nation is where the majority of the people are clustered, with a good deal of the population concentrated in and around the large cities located in that part of the country’s land mass. In addition, seventy-five to eighty percent of the people are still agrarian. Such disparate distribution and density of the population certainly makes feeding, housing, caring for, and educating the citizens an ongoing challenge, with education being a key focus.

Every school day in China, over 300 million students study in Chinese classrooms… more than the entire population of America. Indeed, one of my Chinese colleagues once related to me an enlightening analogy. Education in China, he illustrated, can be compared to a wide, packed highway leading to a narrow bridge. The farther along the road one goes, the narrower it gets. Many students get forced out into endless side streets all along the way. And at the end of that crowded road lies a very narrow bridge called “post secondary study.” If one does not cross that bridge, full participation and success in the Chinese economy is extremely limited. And because very few people can ever cross that bridge successfully, entry into post-secondary study is extremely competitive.

All Chinese citizens are guaranteed a basic ninth-grade education and increased literacy in the nation is one of the primary goals of the government. However, given the enormous number of students to be educated, those aims are difficult to achieve. Average class sizes range anywhere from forty to eighty, depending on the specialization of the school, and can number even more if the circumstances demand. The better schools have smaller classes (no more than forty students) so the teacher can do a better job. However, fifty to sixty students is the norm. From kindergarten on, regimentation is the rule of the day. Students are required to listen and take notes. The teacher traditionally has supreme authority and asking questions or commenting on course content in the classroom is considered to be an affront to the teacher and is thus forbidden. Teacher aides, tutors, or parental help in the classroom are unheard of. Rote memorization remains the dominant methodology and students learn early on that silence and copious note taking are the only keys to success. The students themselves spend most of their day in the classroom-usually from eight to ten hours-and the remainder of their time is devoted to homework and any additional tutoring or other supplemental courses that the parents can afford. At all levels of schooling, test results determine the caliber and quality of school the students will be able to attend, so continual study for capstone examinations (national exams at the completion of fourth, sixth, eight, tenth, and twelfth grades) do much in determining the direction and quality of the students’ lives. Some of the college students I talked to admitted that the rigorous demands placed on them by their teachers and parents left them with little or no childhood, a condition they vowed they would never impart on their own children.

The Chinese post-secondary education system is vastly different from the America system. The semesters are twenty-one weeks long. Chinese college students often attend classes Monday through Friday as well as extra classes, tutoring, and/or study sessions on Saturday and Sunday. Entrance into Chinese colleges and universities is quite difficult and is determined by the infamous national Gaokao placement exam. Only about 10 to 20 percent of high school graduates go on to technical colleges or universities and the exam results determine not only which universities they can attend, but also what majors they can study. Once accepted by a university, the students move through their course of studies in cadres of thirty-five to forty. Each cohort takes exactly the same classes and the members share the same, gender separate dormitories, with eight people to a small, confined room. Often their shower and toilet facilities are in a separate building. One of the students from each cohort is appointed to be the class monitor, and he or she becomes tasked with assuring that all classroom and dormitory activities take place with as few problems as possible. To be selected class monitor is indeed an honor. The students within each cohort and dorm room form close bonds and work together for the good of the whole. Interesting enough, most of the students I have talked with say there is little collaborative or interactive learning that goes on in the classroom. The totality of the Chinese education system serves to severely restrict creativity and individuality in students. Just as with the public education system, the college classroom experience involves listening, memorization, and continuous preparation for entrance exams and placements tests. However, the tests college students take are cumulative and will determine the employment they will acquire after graduation, and thus their future quality of life. The competitive nature of the Chinese education system has produced students who, for the most part, are very earnest, obedient, and extremely hardworking, yet who severely lack initiative.

I taught Chinese college students from all grade levels and their abilities and eagerness to learn continually impressed me. Unlike in America, problems with attendance and preparedness never interfered with classroom instruction, which made my teaching experience most enjoyable. And nearly to a person, the students continually exuded a childlike air about them… a certain navet… a sense of innocence to the ways of the world… indeed, they lacked the hardness present in so many of the students I deal with in my American classroom. The students who I worked with were highly motivated to do their best because they almost universally felt compelled to achieve success at any cost; doing so is their duty to not only society, but more importantly to their family. Parents often sacrifice a great deal in the education of their child, who comes to feel deeply obligated to repay them for the education he or she has received. Many of my students said the same thing: “I must get a good job and make much money so I can take care of my parents. They have worked so hard and spent so much money on my education.” The Chinese still place great emphasis on family… the ancient Confucian notion of Parental Piety… and on subservience to the society as a whole… the collectivism so sharply contrary to the individualist worldview of Westerners.

Every once and a while, one is given an epiphany, a moment of insight, if you will, that provides more information than volumes of books ever can. The first of my educational moments of enlightenment came when we visited several classrooms at a middle school. After the last class of the school day, I noticed many of the students were busy cleaning the windows in the classrooms, washing the blackboards, mopping the floors, and even cleaning the bathrooms. I asked the teacher giving us the tour of the school about this and her reply was, “These activities are part of the students’ education.” Schools have no janitorial force; all of the cleanup work is delegated to the students. “If the students are responsible for the condition of the classrooms and the school,” she continued, “they will put much more effort into and value upon their education. This is very much a part of our Socialist tradition… of Chairman Mao’s ideas of loving labor.”

The second insight came during the second month I was at Northeastern University. On a cold Sunday evening in February a sudden snow storm dropped several inches of snow on Shenyang. Very early the next morning, as I left our apartment building and began to make my way to my first class, I noticed students all over the campus-by the thousands-industriously shoveling snow off of the sidewalks and streets and chipping away at the patches of ice that had formed near door stoops and on steps. They had apparently been at their tasks since daybreak. I could only look on, perplexed, not sure of what I was experiencing. When I met my first class, which coincidentally was a cross-cultural communications course, I took several minutes to explain my curiosity about their activities. They were more than happy to explain the mechanics and the purpose of the activity.

“It is our duty!” explained Albert proudly (Chinese students learning English usually assume an English name).

“Shoveling snow is part of our education.”

“Yes, no one should slip on the ice and become injured,” chimed in Tiffany, whose muffler remained just below her lips in the cold classroom.

“How is the work determined?” I asked, still trying to keep the conversation going.

“Each class is given an assigned area. If the area is not done satisfactorily, the responsible class will be punished,” answered Gerald.

“What happens if someone is lazy and doesn’t want to go out into the cold and sleeps in?” I continued.

“That person will be scorned and even ridiculed by his fellow classmates… will be considered as a person who is unreliable… who can’t be trusted,” said Gail.

Intrigued by the ingenuousness of their answers, I tried to get as much information as I could. “And I saw the girls shoveling and chipping just as hard as the boys. Why is this?”

Connie, who was always timid in class, finally found her voice. “Chairman Mao did much for establishing the equality of women to men. He maintained that women need to stand with men in society, not behind them.”

Perhaps with a little chagrin, I concluded the conversation with a joke about what my students would probably tell me to do with the shovel if I commanded them to go out and remove snow from our college’s sidewalks… a joke no one really understood. But I had found a “teachable moment”… or rather a “learnable moment”… an instance in which the students and I were able to look beyond ourselves and jointly comment on the world around us. And not only had I found out more information about my environment, I was beginning to find those rare moments of teaching when I learned much more than I could ever impart.

I had two such other sudden leaps of understanding just this past year when I went to Shenyang. In my several trips there I had never had the occasion to go in the fall, so because we went during September and October on that visit I was able to observe two very remarkable occurrences. The first was on September 10th, which I did not realize was National Day of the Teacher, a nationwide holiday in which students around the country show their appreciation for their teachers by presenting them with gifts of cards and flowers. We knew the day was a holiday for teachers, but we were incredibly surprised when two of our students appeared at our door with two large arrangements of flowers… a token they said of the gratitude all of our students had for us being their teachers. Traditionally, the relationship of the teacher to the student has almost mirrored that of the one between parent and child, a concept that comes from the time of Confucius (Kongfuzi).

This insight was followed up shortly thereafter with yet another, when I was visiting the Foreign Studies College at Northeastern University, just after the beginning of the semester in September. From several blocks away I heard a chorus of hundreds of voices singing a martial anthem. As I walked onto the large concrete square in front of the twelve-story Administration Building, I saw arrayed there at least two thousand students dressed in the drab green of military uniforms. Some were marching, some were standing in large cadres on the building steps, and other were engaged in military hand-to-hand combat tactics, all under the direction of regular Chinese Army instructors. Later I came to find out that all college freshmen, at every college and university around the country, are required to receive a full three weeks of military training before they even begin their classes. Some of the teachers I talked to explained how that requirement was purposeful in helping the students prepare for the rigors of college life and studies; others said it had come out of the Tiananmen Square incident and had been implemented to prevent university students from engaging in anti-government organizing and activities. Again, the differences between the students of China and those of America are often stark.

But the restlessness and impatience of youth is universal. In China the imposition of Western influences, brought about by the rise of capitalism and the driving force of commercialism and advertising, movies and videos, the Internet and other glimpses of outside cultures, have generated a rising sense of not dissent, but perhaps discontent… maybe uneasiness with the status quo. The Chinese youth of today are not the same as that of twenty or even ten years ago, and this groundswell is probably most noticeable in education. Though still hard-working and conscientious, contemporary students are progressively coming to expect more than just a passive exchange of information and knowledge during the course of their learning; they are, I think, gradually asking for a more participatory role in their education, which might, in the end, spill over into the broader social and political realms.

This need for change in educational methodology is exerting growing pressure on the teaching profession in China to change. The Chinese teachers and professors I worked with were equally industrious and eager to help and learn. And though the teacher remains the center of authority in the classroom, they are continually asked for much and given little in return; they for the most part are underpaid, making a fraction of their American counterparts, while doing more with less. And they sense the limitations of their traditional methods of teaching… those that have been ingrained into the culture since the time of Kongfuzi. With the new generation of students coming into their classrooms, the old methods prove to not be working so well. The twenty-first century is requiring people who can do more tha just memorize; instead, abstract thinkers are going to be needed and the teachers and professors are looking to the West, strangely enough, to provide them with the teaching tools to accomplish this goal. And just as with their students, when exposed to new and different ways of teaching, such as collaborative learning and independent thought, Chinese teachers are slowly finding out that melding innovation with tradition brings success.

At the risk of over generalization, I can say that the students, and certainly the faculty members, are extremely different from those I have grown accustomed to in America. Because education is not a right, but rather a privilege in China, both groups for the most part take their studies, educational mission, and teaching responsibilities quite seriously. As a result, I submit that both the American and Chinese cultures and educational systems can learn a great deal from each other.

Note: The above article has been excerpted from a photo narrative entitled An American Academic in Li Bai’s Court: China Photos and Reflection, created and written by John H. Paddison. Copyright 2010, Paddison-Orvik Publishing.

Copyright 2011 Paddison-Orvik Publishing.

What Is Wrong With Continuing Medical Education?

A good friend in college in the National Speakers Association emailed me yesterday. In the back and forth of emails told me two things about the conference that she was attending:

1. She was beginning to see the frustrations of being in the continuing education (CME) market, and
2. She could not understand how such intelligent people (experts) could be so business stupid.

Now my friend has been in the speaking industry as a talent agent, a book agent, and as a professional speaker and trainer for more years than she will tell me. Her frustration arises from the fact that in the speaking industry we look at four benchmarks of proficiency:

1. Expertise – knowing your subject better than anyone in your audience.
2. Eloquence – having the skills and the preparation to relay that expertise from the platform.
3. Enterprise – having the business knowledge to convey expertise and eloquence without losing your shirt.
4. Ethics – having the professional self respect to do business in a morally correct fashion and not feel, coop, or plagiarize other people’s materials.

My friend’s email betrayed that she could not understand why all four benchmarks were missed in the CME arena.

I explained to her that it was not that the speakers she watched lacked expertise. It was that they lacked the eloquence to portray it. They used the same old jokes that they heard at the last four or five seminars very often, jokes that are not even relevant tangentially to the subject at hand. Alternatively, they will use a story whether it is heart wrenching, heart warming, scary, or reassuring even if it does not apply to the topic at hand. They will stretch and then over stretch to make a connection and in the process lose the audience and the entire point of their speech.

I explained to her that I am a devotee of AudioDigest (TM). AudioDigest (TM) is a recording service for medical seminars. Their editors listen to literally hundreds of speakers recorded at major CME programs around the world. They then have no trouble editing this down to the few that are worthy of audio reproduction. Even with that editorial review and relying on the grading of medical audiences, significant amounts of editing are required to produce useable audio seminars. An audioDigest program runs 55 to 60 minutes and very often has two speakers. I always have to remind my own speech students that each of these speakers were recorded at a 55 to 60 minute speech and yet very often it requires three of them edited to 20 minutes of useable information to create one 60minute audioDigest program. That means that each speaker wasted twothirds of their time and the audience’s time.

Speakers in the CME market are selected based on a written abstract. Almost never is a demonstration DVD required nor testimonials or prior review scores from previous appearances. When a CME committee selects a speaker, it is either political or based on their knowledge (expertise in the field). That committee has no idea of whether or not the speaker possesses any eloquence.

When it comes to enterprise, the old adage,

“Doctors do not know business”

rings truer than in any other endeavor. Medical speakers are very much like retired federal employees, they believe that a $500.00 speak use fee is a “homerun.” Beginning speakers charge greater than $1,500.00 with no expertise and little or no eloquence. In CME programs, all of the speakers have “terminal degrees.” They are doctors. They possess eight years or more of formal education and another three years or more of postgraduate training. Why are they charging the same amount as a college student or a construction worker turned speaker?

The reason is their expectation. They expect to get $500.00. I call this the “doughnut money” because most of these medical speakers got their first speaking engagement from a local drug rep that paid them out of the same budget that the drug rep uses to bring doughnuts to the doctor’s staff in the morning. These “doughnut money” speakers destroy the opportunity for enterprise in the CME market for more eloquent experts. This is why those of us who are professional speakers for a living simply do not speak in the CME arena. We ply our trade in more fervent pastures such as the corporate board room or high tech industry.

So if doctors have expertise but lack eloquence and enterprise, what about ethics? Aren’t doctors supposed to be the most ethical people? Don’t we trust them with decisions of life or death?

Physicians are on ethics committees in hospitals and make decisions regarding the appropriateness of each other’s care as well as weighing the risks and benefits of various treatments for various diseases. In these arenas, doctors are tremendously ethical.

Unfortunately when it comes to plagiarizing each other’s materials, “borrowing” comic strips, cartoons, and other artwork, even photographs, from copyrighted print material, playing music and even videos without royalty, even playing a recording of another speaker without their knowledge, doctors lack any form of professional speakers’ ethics. The speaking industry has a strict code of ethics regarding these activities and many others just as the medical profession has a code of ethics within their scope of practice. Those physicians that choose to live in both worlds choose to live by both codes of ethics and they must learn it.

My physician colleagues who speak for a hobby are not bad people. They are simply not educated in the speaking profession.

So what is the solution?

Just as physicians attend continuing medical education (CME), professional speakers attend continuing education dealing with the skills required to advance their Expertise, Eloquence, Enterprise and Ethics. My physician colleagues who choose to “dabble” in professional speaking should go to their local community college and take a speech course as well as creative writing course. If they took one in college, they need to take it again. Refreshers are always good. If they do not want to go to the community college, then they should join Toastmasters International.

This is an excellent opportunity for a new and burgeoning speakers to have their work critiqued (doctors fear critique) and a tremendous venue to try out new material. They do not have to be afraid of not knowing all the answers because their audience does not care what the message is, they do not care about the expertise. At Toastmasters International they care about the technique, it is the eloquence that matters.

If my physician colleagues do not want to join Toastmasters or go to a community college, then they should take an improve course at a local comedy club. Here they will learn stage presence, timing, pauses, joke writing, and finding the comedy in everyday life.

Through any one or all of these opportunities, the physician who “dabbles” in speaking can be as good on the platform as the family practitioner who “dabbles” in office surgery. They will be competent. They will be selfassured. They will have great outcome and they will know when they are getting in over their head. . . . When to ask for help.

Classroom Management Techniques Educators Need

It is imperative that every educator should endeavor to be a good classroom manager. Being a good class manager means building classroom discipline in students. This is because the classroom is ideally the learning environment where everything proper and curriculum based takes place. Besides, an educator deals with different types of individuals who are psychological beings with different backgrounds and personalities as students in the classroom.

Therefore, when the educator applies good and proven classroom management techniques, he or she will be able to bring under control the different kinds of behavior the students typify. Nevertheless, there are educators who are known to have been using a set of unique classroom management techniques that works just like the several methods others apply. However, the creativity of the teacher as commonly taught in most classroom management workshops is vital in evolving different and proven classroom management techniques.

Here are some initiatives for building effective classroom discipline and fostering good classroom management that makes classroom teaching and learning fun for both the educator and his or her students.

Use focus and direct instruction techniques in building classroom discipline: If you begin your lesson anyhow with the hope that your students will get under control and ready to learn, you may be wrong. It is always important that the educator gets the class and the whole students’ attention focused on the task at hand before the lesson begins. If as an educator you consistently start to teach your class while your students are not paying attention, there is the likelihood they will assume it is proper to talk while you are teaching.

As a good educator, demand your students’ attention on the task at hand even before you start the introductory part of your lesson.

As one of the initiatives in building effective classroom management techniques, direct instruction helps the teacher to set out a plan for his or her class each day. The rule is to directly instruct your students about what they are going to learn and what you expect them to do. Without known plan or routine, your students are bound to become agitated and excited and therefore lose their attentions on the lesson task or simply have other misplaced priorities which will constitute class management issues for you. However, when you give direct instructions, you will need to follow up to know that your students understand what to do. The easiest way is by random selection of students and asking them to repeat your instructions. You might even ask them at intervals what task they should be doing or how much time they have left.

Use effective interpersonal relationship techniques in building classroom discipline: In order to have a long lasting and satisfying teaching career, every educator should consider the importance of keeping healthy interpersonal relationships with his or her students. This technique involves a lot of things and it should be applied mostly outside the classroom lesson period.

These classroom management techniques taught in classroom management workshops includes making eye contact with each student each day, getting to know your students by names, hobbies, likes, dislikes, sports, and their interests. It also involves spending one-on-one time with each student as practicable as you can and as often as possible even if it is just for a few seconds. Securing parental help is also an important part of this initiative once you see an issue developing.

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